The Scala object model: scala.Any, scala.AnyVal, scala.AnyRef
excerpted from : An Overview of the Scala Programming Language, Second Edition
1. Every value is an object and every operation is a message send.
2. Every class in Scala inherits from class Scala.Any. Subclasses of Any fall into two categories: the value classes which inherit from scala.AnyVal and the reference classes which inherit from scala.AnyRef.
3. Every primitive Java type name corresponds to a value class, and is mapped to it by a predefined type alias.
4. In a Java environment, AnyRef is identified with the root class java.lang.Object. An instance of a reference class is usually implemented as a pointer to an object stored in the program heap. An instance of a value class is usually represented directly, without indirection through a pointer.
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