Samstag, 10. Oktober 2015

孔誥烽:受過軍事訓練的黑人(Black Jacobins)揭竿而起,推翻了白人統治,殺光了留在島上的 白人奴隸主

孔誥烽:受過軍事訓練的黑人(Black Jacobins)揭竿而起,推翻了白人統治,殺光了留在島上的 白人奴隸主

from 無待堂 :


一直納悶,不明白爲何1807年 英國忽然廢除奴隸貿易,差不多時間 美國北方的進步基督徒 也開始發起廢除奴隸運動(Quakers 如Johns Hopkins 也在這一年主動無條件釋放自己的奴隸)。

主流的解釋是新教改革家開始明白奴隸制度的不人道,基本是一種 “ 白人忽然良心發現 ” 的史觀。

但實情是1791-1804年法屬加勒比海殖民地 Saint-Dominigue 受法國大革命雅各賓黨影響、在法軍受過軍事訓練的黑人(Black Jacobins)揭竿而起,推翻了白人統治,殺光了留在島上的白人奴隸主,建立海地共和國。

海地革命的成功立刻引發美國南方莊園的奴隸武裝起義,海地革命政府更支持 Simon Bolivar 的拉美革命,對拉丁美洲擺脫西班牙和葡萄牙獨立,功不可沒。


寫歷史的白人,好害怕後人看到這段血腥的革命史受到啓發,對種族戰爭心存恐懼,所以好小心將海地革命的歷史 及其世界史級的重要性抹走,連蘇聯 和馬克思主義史學家Hobsbawn寫的世界革命史,都很少提及海地革命。

他們都只想你知道有甘地、MLK,不想你知道有 Black Jacobins。

The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (1938), by Afro-Trinidadian writer C. L. R. James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989), is a history of the 1791–1804 Haitian Revolution. He went to Paris to research this work, where he met Haitian military historian Alfred Auguste Nemours.

James's text places the revolution in the context of the French Revolution, and focuses on the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture, who was born a slave but rose to prominence espousing the French Revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality.

These ideals, which many French revolutionaries did not maintain consistently with regard to the black humanity of their colonial possessions, were embraced, according to James, with a greater purity by the persecuted blacks of Haiti; such ideals "meant far more to them than to any Frenchman."[1]

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James examines the brutal conditions of slavery as well as the social and political status of the slave-owners, poor or "small" whites, and "free" blacks and mulattoes leading up to the Revolution. The work explores the dynamics of the Caribbean economy and the European feudal system during the era before the Haitian Revolution, and places each revolution in comparative historical and economic perspective.

Toussaint L'Ouverture becomes a central and symbolic character in James' narrative of the Haitian Revolution. His complete embodiment of the revolutionary ideals of the period was, according to James, incomprehensible even to the revolutionary French, who did not seem to grasp the urgency of these ideals in the minds and spirits of a people rising from slavery. L'Ouverture had defiantly asserted that he intended

to cease to live before gratitude dies in my heart, before I cease to be faithful to France and to my duty, before the god of liberty is profaned and sullied by the liberticides, before they can snatch from my hands that sword, those arms, which France confided to me for the defence of its rights and those of humanity, for the triumph of liberty and equality.[1]

The French bourgeoisie could not understand this motivation, according to James, and mistook it for rhetoric or bombast.[1] "Rivers of blood were to flow before they understood," James writes.[1]

James concluded:

The cruelties of property and privilege are always more ferocious than the revenges of poverty and oppression. For the one aims at perpetuating resented injustice, the other is merely a momentary passion soon appeased.

source :

孔誥烽:在法軍受過軍事訓練的黑人(Black Jacobins)揭竿而起,推翻了白人統治,殺光了留在島上的白人奴隸主

The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (1938),

The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (1938),

The Black Jacobins:

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